Terms Used in Feed Analysis:
Knowledge of terms used on horse feeds is necessary in understanding analysis and guarantees. The first thing to know
is that the first item listed on the stated feed analysis is the highest quality product in the feed. Toward the bottom of
the analyses is stated the vitamins and minerals. These are premixes purchased by the packagers of feed and added to the base
product which in the case of horses is usually oats. The higher the quality of the premix the higher the cost of the feed.
Crude protein is used to designate the nitrogenous constituents of a feed. The percentage is obtained by multiplying the percentage
of total nitrogen by the factor 6.6. The nitrogen is derived chiefly from complex chemical compounds called amino acids. Crude
fat is the mineral that is extracted from moister free feeds by ether. It consists largely of fats and oils with small amount
of waxes, resins, and coloring matter. To calculate the heat and energy value of the feed, fat is considered 2.25 times that
of either nitrogen-free extract or protein. Crude Fiber is a relatively insoluble carbohydrate portion of a feed consisting
mainly of cellulose determined by it's insolubility in dilute acid and alkalis Ash is the mineral matter of a feed. It is
the residue remaining after complete burning of organic matter. Nitrogen free extract is principally made of sugars, starches,
pentoses, and non-nitrogenous organic acids the percentage is calculated by subtracting the um of percentage of moisture,
crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash from 100. Carbohydrates are the sum of the crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract.
Calcium and phosphorus are essential mineral elements that are present in feeds in varying amounts. Mineral feeds are usually
high in source materials of these elements. TDN is the digestible nutrients of any ingredients. They are calculated by multiplying
the percentage of each nutrient by the digestion coefficient. Example: corn contains 8.9% protein of which 77% is digestible.
Thus, the percent of digestible protean is 6.9. The value given for TDN is the sum of all the digestible organic nutrients,
protein, fiber, nitrogen-free extract and fat. Having knowledge on these facts will help save money on your feed bill and
produce animals that are able to perform better.
Horses once wandered over the prairies and moistened their hoofs frequently as they drank from streams and lakes. Today
horses are kept in an unnatural state drinking from buckets and stock tanks and are exercised on dry hard surfaces. These
conditions make for dry brittle hoofs. Man now has to provide the means for horses to keep their hooves moist, for if left
dry for prolonged periods of time, the hoof will split and can cause lameness. The frogs loose elasticity and are no longer
effective as shock absorbers. The frogs shrink and the heels will contract. All of this can be prevented by keeping the ground
wet around stock tanks and applying hoof dressing. Good hoof dressing will restore and maintain necessary flexibility and
elasticity of the hoof by penetrating the hoof and allowing it to breathe while regulating the absorption and evaporation
rate. When it comes to preventing "dry Hoofs" an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
Liniments for Horses:
When properly used a good liniment will hasten and assist nature in returning an injured horse back to normal and relieve
fatigue, overexertion and soreness. Most liniments are a mild stimulant; however, some are quite strong and can actually burn
or irritate tissue if over used. Always check out the ingredients before use. Both alcohol and acetone are common ingredients
in liniments. Alcohol is the less severe. Liniments along with massage, stimulates circulation, assists in removing waste
products of the muscle (lactic acid) and helps nature return the affected area to normal. A note to remember is that liniments
should not be used if heat is present in the leg. Heat is an indication of an inflammation in which case liniments are no
help. The use of a liniment is recommended for the following conditions: Lameness, stiffness, soreness, strained tendons,
sore shins, certain types of arthritis, and swelling along with bumps and bruises. Liniments may also be used as a body wash
or brace after strenuous overexertion that might prevent or reduce soreness. In general horses are heavily muscled and when
these muscles are used they will quickly build up lactic acid causing soreness. The proper use of liniments will help reduce
the time it takes for your horse to recover. Always be sure to read and follow manufactures directions.
Growth or Decline
1900- Horse and mule population was 21,531,635 no tractors
1920- 25,493,000 along with 246,083 tractors
1940- 13,931,531 along with 1,567,430 tractors
1950- 7,604,000 along with 3,394,000 tractors
1968- 6,675,000 along with 4,820,000 tractors As you can see the horse population declined as tractors came into
use. From 1961 horses only were counted.
As of 2007 the USA was the country with the highest horse population according to the US food and Agriculture organization.
At that time the horse population stood at 9,223,000 followed by China a t 7.4 million, Mexico at 6.26 million, Brazil at
5.7 million, and Argentina at 3.5 million. No country in Europe has more that one million horses. As of October 26, 2007 the
world horse population stood at 58 million....Hmmm-No mention if tractor numbers have started to decline...
HHSA and EHV:
With respect to the outbreaks of EquineHerpesVirus or EHV for short, HHSA makes the following
recommendation when attending a horse show or any event that requires your traveling off of your farm. Remember,
refer to your Veterinarian for expert advice:
- Use preventitive management practices. Keep horses innoculated as recommended by your veterinarian.
- Use sound, common sense management practices in maintaining your farm/animals.
- Limit contact with other horses / riders when attending activities that require your traveling off
of your farm.
- Stay within your trailer area and mingle only (to the best of your ability. This may be tough when
waiting at an in-gate - but try to limit nose to nose contact etc.) with fellow boarders to minimize the risk of transmitting
or possibly contracting EHV.
- Check with venues you may be traveling to to see if there are any restrictions in place for their
- Check with your own farm manager to see if they have instituted any restrictions with respect to travel
in and our of your boarding facility.
- If you have any questions, contact your vet or visit the Maryland Department of Agriculture Web-site for updates on conditions and advice on this disease.
Any additional question can be referred to:
The Department of Agriculture - Animal Health Section
8077 Green Meade Drive
College Park, MD 20740
410.841.5810 or 1.800.492.5000